欢迎光临 读典籍 收藏本站设为首页
当前位置:首页 > 经济财经 > 《货币战争(1)》在线阅读 > 正文 第二章 国际银行家和美国总统的百年战争 2.13 第二章小结
背景:                     字号: 加大    默认

《货币战争(1)》 作者/编者:宋鸿兵

2.13 第二章小结更新时间:2018-10-07

小 结

◆英国银行家控制下的英国议会剥夺了殖民地的发币权,造成了失业和不满,成为美国独立战争爆发的主要原因。

◆美国第一任财政部长汉密尔顿游说华盛顿成立中心银行以得到外国资金进股,接受罗斯柴尔德家族的资助。

◆美国第一银行关门大吉使内森勃然大怒,要给美国人一次教训,几个月后,爆发了英美之间的1812年战争,打到美国政府债台高筑,终极不得不在1815年屈服,成立第二家中心银行,罗斯柴尔德牢牢把握了它的权力。

◆ 美国第二银行的延期申请遭到杰克逊总统的否决后,罗斯柴尔德家族所把持的欧洲主要银行业同时收紧了美国银根,美国陷进了严重的“人为”货币流通量剧减的境地,终极引发了1837年恐慌,经济陷进衰退长达5年之久。

◆与辉格党关键人物亨利.克雷围绕私有中心银行和独立财政系统斗争的哈里森和泰勒两任总统都先后神秘往世。

◆美国和澳大利亚的黄金大发现打破了欧洲金融家对黄金供给量的尽对控制。国际银行家采取金融上控制、政治上分化的策略造成了1857年恐慌。

◆“伦敦、巴黎和法兰克福轴心”的银行家们正是美国南北战争的幕后黑手。南北战争从根本上看,是国际金融势力及其代理人与美国政府激烈争夺美国国家货币发行权和货币政策的利益之争。

◆林肯让政府自己发行新币深深刺痛了国际金融寡头的根本利益。南北战争后,在战争中一直为南方提供巨额金融支持的国际银行家损失惨重。为了报复和颠覆林肯的货币新政,他们严密策划了刺杀林肯的行动。

◆国际银行家在与美国政府经历了百年的激烈较量之后,完全占了上风。

—— 注释 ——

[1] Abraham Lincoln, letter to William Elkins, Nov 21, 1864 (just after the passage of the debt causing National Bank Act [June 3, 1864], right before assassination).

[2] G. Edward Griffin, The Creature from Jekyll Island (American Media, Westlake Village, CA 2002) p393.

[3] Izola Forrester, This One Mad Act (Boston: Hale, Cushman & Flint, 1937), p359.

[4] Glyn Davis, History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day (University of Wales Press, 2002), p458.

[5] Ibid., p459.

[6] Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, 1776, book IV Chapter one.

[7] Congressman Charles G. Binderup, How Benjamin Franklin Made New England Prosperous, 1941.

Note: Radio address given by Congressman Charles G. Binderup of Nebraska, and was reprinted in Unrobing the Ghosts of Wall Street.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10] In 1787, when the Continental Congress met to adopt the replacement to the Articles of Confederation, which would become the Constitution, Jefferson’s address regarding a central banking system.

[11] US Constitution Article I Section 8.

[12] Letter to the Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin (1802).

[13] Allan Hamilton, The Intimate Life of Alexander Hamilton (Charles Scribner’s Sons 1910).

[14] Quoted by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., The Age of Jackson (New York: Mentor Books, 1945), p6—7.

[15] Written on April 30, 1781, to his mentor, Robert Morris. Quoted by John H. Makin, The Global Debt Crisis: America’s Growing Involvement (New York: Basic Books, 1984), p246.

[16] The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (New York: G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1899), Vol. X, p31.

[17] The Basic Writings of Thomas Jefferson (Willey Book Company, 1944), p749.

[18] Glyn Davies, History of Money From Ancient Times to The Present Day (University of Wales Press, 2002),? p474.

[19] Ibid., p475.

[20] Thomas Jefferson, Letter to John Taylor of Caroline, 26 November 1798; reproduced in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson v. 10, editted by Lipscomb and Bergh.

[21] Glyn Davies, History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day (University of Wales Press, 2002),? p475-476.

[22] Thomas? Jefferson,? Letter to James Monroe, January 1, 1815.

[23] Glyn Davies, History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day (University of Wales Press, 2002),? p476.

[24] Ibid., p479.

[25] G. Edward Griffin, The Creature from Jekyll Island (American Media, Westlake Village, CA 2002).

[26] Inaugural Address of President William Henry Harrison March 4, 1841.

[27] Michael F. Holt; The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War (1999). p272.

[28] Glyn Davies, History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day (University of Wales Press 2002),? p484.

[29] Ibid., p486.

[30] Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People (Yale University Press, 1972), on p. 649.

[31] Jewish History in Civil War, Jewish-American History Documentation Foundation, Inc. 2006.

[32] Glyn Davies, History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day (University of Wales Press 2002), p489.

[33] Des Griffin, Descent into Slavery (Emissary Publications, 1980).

[34] Abraham Lincoln and John F. Kennedy by Melvin Sickler.

[35] From a circular issued by authority of the Associated Bankers of New York, Philadelphia, and Boston signed by one James Buel, secretary, sent out from 247 Broadway, New York in 1877, to the bankers in all of the States.

上一章 返回简介 下一章 (可以用方向键翻页,回车键返回目录)加入书签